Science and Technology – Who Invented the Internet

Who Invented the Internet?

Science and Technology have always been an integral part of Indian culture. Natural philosophy, as it was termed in those ancient times, was pursued vigorously at institutions of higher learning. The Indian Renaissance, which coincided with our independence struggle, at the dawn of 1900s witnessed great strides made by Indian scientists. This innate ability to perform creatively in science came to be backed with an institutional setup and strong state support after the country’s independence in 1947. Since then, the Government of India has spared no effort to establish a modern S&T infrastructure in the country.

The Department of Science and Technology plays a pivotal role in promotion of science and technology in the country.
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Invention of the Internet

                                                                                            Young woman looking through a microscope

What most of us think of as the Internet is really just the pretty face of the operation—browser windows, websites, URLs, and search bars. But the real Internet, the brain behind the information superhighway, is an intricate set of protocols and rules that someone had to develop before we could get to the World Wide Web Computer scientists and  are credited with inventing the Internet communication protocols we use today and the system referred to as the Internet.  Before the current iteration of the Internet, long-distance networking between computers was first accomplished in a 1969 experiment by two research teams at UCLA and Stanford. Though the system crashed during the initial attempt to log in to the neighboring computer, the researchers, led by Leonard Kleinrock, succeeded in creating the first two-node network. The experiment was also the first test of “packet switching,” a method of transferring data between two computer systems. Packet switching separates information into smaller “packets” of data that are then transported across multiple different channels and reassembled at their destination. The packet-switching method is still the basis of data transfer today. When you send an email to someone, instead of needing to establish a connection with the recipient before you send, the email is broken up into packets and can be read once all of the packets have been reassembled and received.

How was the Internet invented?

Learn more about the history and development of the Internet.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.


Ministry of Science & Technology

Cabinet MinisterDr. Jitendra Singh

Cerf and Kahn developed a set of guidelines for data transfer using packet switching in 1980, calling those guidelines TCP/IP, or Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. The TCP part of the protocol is in charge of packing the data before it moves across the network and unpacking it once it has arrived. The IP component acts as the trip coordinator and maps the movement of information from its start point to its end point. While Kleinrock’s experiment proved that a single network between two computer systems was possible, Cerf and Kahn’s TCP/IP provided the backbone for an efficient and large web of interconnected networks—thus the name “Internet.” Though other protocols were developed and used before TCP/IP, such as the file transfer protocol  and network control protocol (NCP), the Internet as we know it today is built on the basis of Cerf and Kahn’s “network of networks.”

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